Ознакомьтесь с многочисленными исследованиями и публикациями, доказывающими эффективность Метода Tomatis® в различных областях его применения. Названия переведены в литературном стиле и приводятся только для Вашей информации.
В статье представлено описание влияния музыкальной деятельности и музыкальной терапии в контексте пандемии COVID-19. Наряду с музыкотерапией описаны преимущества эффекта Моцарта и метода Томатис, а также вклад музыки и музыкальной деятельности в различные аспекты жизни человека. Особое внимание в статье уделено музыкальной деятельности и развитию музыкальных способностей детей в контексте учреждений раннего и дошкольного образования, где подчеркивается важная роль воспитателей в проведении музыкальных занятий в работе с детьми. Проведение музыкальных занятий во время пандемии COVID-19 представляло собой особый вызов для педагогов, которые во время изоляции могли проводить музыкальные занятия через различные платформы. Такой способ реализации был возможен только при сотрудничестве с родителями, которые таким образом также были вовлечены в музыкальную деятельность, которую проводили педагоги. Помимо музыкальных навыков, педагог должен обладать определенными цифровыми компетенциями. Каким образом музыка может помочь и каким образом музыка помогла установить связь и сблизить родителей и детей, педагогов и детей и, наконец, детей с детьми во время пандемии COVID-19. В статье упоминается роль педагогов в приобщении детей к музыке, что является правильным способом сблизить детей и заинтересовать их музыкой. Что это за музыкальные занятия и каков правильный способ подготовки к их наилучшему и качественному исполнению. Мы также посмотрим, как пандемия смогла изменить работу детских садов и как воспитателям пришлось приспосабливаться к новым условиям. Какие проблемы вызвала пандемия при адаптации к новому образу жизни в семейных домах. Что такое психическое здоровье и каков наилучший способ его сохранения, и как проходило музыкальное воспитание в домах во время изоляции.
За последние три десятилетия было изучено множество терапевтических и диетических режимов для детей с расстройством аутистического спектра (РАС). Наша цель - оценить эффективность гипербарической кислородной терапии (ГБОТ) и звуковой терапии Томатиса (ЗТТ) в египетской когорте детей с РАС. Это исследование было проспективным, открытым, рандомизированным интервенционным клиническим исследованием. В исследование были включены сто сорок шесть детей с РАС без предшествующей реабилитационной терапии. Пациенты были случайным образом разделены на четыре группы: первая группа получала гипербарическую кислородную терапию, вторая группа - звуковую терапию Томатис, третья группа - сочетание обеих методик, а четвертая группа, контрольная, не получала никакого вмешательства. Мы обнаружили, что сочетание звуковой терапии Tomatis с гипербарической кислородной терапией дало больший эффект в улучшении симптомов аутизма, чем каждый из методов в отдельности (CARS после терапии 35,04 ± 13,38 по сравнению с 49,34 ± 17,54 до вмешательства, p < 0,001). Сочетание обеих методик может быть полезным для детей с РАС. Наиболее точные данные, подтверждающие использование комбинированной терапии для лечения РАС, все еще противоречивы; однако наше исследование предоставляет некоторые доказательства пользы комбинированной терапии для детей с РАС. Будущие исследования должны использовать более сложный дизайн исследования и начать с поиска последовательного базового показателя, который может быть использован для оценки эффекта этих методов лечения РАС.
Аннотация: В данном экспериментальном исследовании изучался дизайн исследования эффективности метода Tomatis® в коррекции центрального расстройства обработки слуховой информации (Ц/РОСИ). Ц/РОСИ - это сложное расстройство, которое влияет на жизнь детей, начиная от социальной коммуникации и заканчивая образованием. Основное внимание в исследовании было уделено осуществимости и изучению потенциальных усилий по набору участников, соблюдению требований, способности к реализации, полноте протоколов тестирования и лечения, удержанию участников в исследовании и соответствии алгоритму лечения. Вторичным фокусом исследования была экспериментальная часть исследования, которая состояла из двух групп: группы Томатис и контрольной группы, в каждой из которых было по 4 участника, всего 8. 8 участников были случайным образом распределены в одну из двух групп. Обе группы прошли предварительное и последующее тестирование с использованием стандартизированных методов тестирования, широко принятых в области слуховой терапии, работающей с Ц/РОСИ. Группа, ожидавшая вмешательства, использовалась для контроля. Группа Томатис получала метод Томатис®. В целом, по 13/17 субтестам все участники лечебной группы улучшили свои результаты, чего не наблюдалось в контрольной группе. Кроме того, показатели лечебной группы показали более значительные улучшения в тестах, в которых наблюдались улучшения у некоторых участников контрольной группы. В 5/17 тестах, по крайней мере, один участник из группы лечения улучшил свои результаты по сравнению с отсутствием улучшений в контрольной группе. Результаты основного направления данного пилотного исследования показали, что оно выполнимо. Кроме того, были отмечены обнадеживающие тенденции, свидетельствующие о том, что метод Tomatis® может улучшить слуховую обработку и положительно повлиять на соответствующие функции, необходимые для обучения.
Аннотация: Обучение для человека начинается с момента рождения. Ребенок всегда находится в процессе обучения, чтобы понять свою мать, окружающую среду и все происходящее. Когда дети достигают школьного возраста, они начинают читать и писать. В этой новой ситуации у некоторых учеников возникают трудности. Эти трудности определяются как "трудности в обучении". Эта трудность, которая также выражается как дислексия, является одним из видов расстройства, которое сегодня диагностируется довольно часто. Музыка перестает быть хобби для некоторых людей, она становится профессией для профессионалов. Для того чтобы музыка стала профессией, существует учебное заведение, где с раннего возраста дают музыкальное образование, чтобы музыка стала профессией. Консерватории - это самые основные школы, где обучают игре на различных инструментах. Фортепиано также включено в это обучение. Обучение игре на фортепиано - это практика, которая активизирует оба полушария мозга. По этой причине игра на фортепиано чрезвычайно полезна для повышения пластичности мозга. Обучение игре на фортепиано также применяется при нарушениях обучаемости. Положительное влияние музыки также выявлено в различных исследованиях. С помощью метода, разработанного французским отоларингологом Альфредом Томатисом, был опробован новый метод лечения многих заболеваний, включая трудности в обучении. Эти исследования, названные "методом Томатис", проводятся с помощью разработанной в лаборатории гарнитуры, которая обеспечивает костную и воздушную проводимость звука. Изменение частоты произведений Моцарта вызывает стимуляцию внутреннего уха и оказывает положительное влияние на человека. Целью данного исследования является повышение успешности уроков и игры на фортепиано путем применения метода Томатис к ученику, который обучается игре на фортепиано, с диагнозом "проблемы с обучаемостью". Кроме того, наблюдалось, есть ли разница до и после применения метода со шкалой. В результате исследования было установлено, что применение метода Томатис в течение трех курсов дало положительные результаты. Для того, чтобы исследование было статистически значимым, было предложено увеличить выборку.
Цель: Цель исследования - провести интегративный обзор, который выявит эффективность метода Томатис как варианта лечения детей с расстройством аутистического спектра (РАС).
Источник данных: Всесторонний поиск мета-анализов и практических случаев, писем, статей, цитат в статьях, ссылок, книг на английском, французском и испанском языках, опубликованных за последние 30 лет.
Результаты: В общей сложности 14 статей и 2 книги соответствовали критериям включения, все они были прочитаны и проанализированы в соответствии с протоколом интегративного обзора, а затем распределены по категориям. Было отмечено, что существует 6 количественных исследований, 6 исследований со смешанным методом и 4 качественных исследования. Почти все они поддерживают метод Томатис (кроме 1) как вмешательство, которое может помочь детям с РАС. Даже в том одном исследовании, которое показало, что положительные результаты не были связаны с лечением по методу Томатис, был сделан вывод, что большинство детей, принимавших участие в исследовании, продемонстрировали общее улучшение в работе с языком. В ряде исследований было указано, что в результате дети больше не считаются больными аутизмом.
Заключение: Метод Томатис предлагает вмешательство, которое значительно улучшает аутичные черты у детей, но необходимо провести больше исследований, особенно рандомизированных контрольных исследований, которые дадут возможность получить более весомые доказательства.
Аннотация: Общие сведения. Нарушения сна и бодрствования чаще всего возникают у пациентов после кровоизлияния в мозг, что может задержать процесс восстановления. Но длительное фармацевтическое лечение может вызвать слабую реакцию. Слуховая терапия Томатис может стимулировать и улучшить взаимосвязь между ухом и нервной системой человека, тем самым регулируя структуру сна методом прослушивания музыки, состоящей из звуков с внезапным переходом от низких частот к высоким и наоборот.
Методы: С июля 2017 года по июль 2018 года в отделении нейрохирургии больницы при Северокитайском университете науки и технологии набрали 138 пациентов с расстройствами сна после острого кровоизлияния в мозг. С помощью таблицы случайных чисел они были поровну разделены на контрольную группу, группу музыкальной терапии и группу слуховой терапии, получающих обычный уход, обычный уход и обычную музыкальную терапию, обычный уход в сочетании со слуховой терапией Томатис (прослушивание музыки, состоящей из звуков с резким переходом от низких частот к высоким и наоборот) соответственно. Вмешательство продолжалось 14 дней подряд для всех участников. Данные о качестве сна были собраны с помощью ночного PSG мониторинга. Структура сна сравнивалась между группами до и после вмешательства. Результаты. Были отмечены значительные различия в латентности не-REM, латентности REM, соотношении латентности не-REM к общему времени сна, времени 3 стадии не-REM сна к общему времени сна, времени 4 стадии не-REM сна к общему времени сна и времени REM сна к общему времени сна после вмешательства среди трех групп （P<0. 05）． Самоконтролируемые сравнения показали, что по сравнению с исходным уровнем, после вмешательства качество сна изменилось незначительно в контрольной группе （P>0.05）；cjотношение времени сна 4 стадии не-REM памяти к общему времени сна увеличилось в группе музыкальной терапии （P<0. 05）；отношение общего времени сна к общему времени записи, времени 3 стадии не-REM сна к общему времени сна, времени 4 стадии не-REM сна к общему времени сна, и времени REM сна к общему времени сна увеличилось, в то время как латентность не-REM, и отношение латентности не-REM к общему времени сна уменьшилось в группе музыкальной терапии （P<0. 05）． Межгрупповое сравнение показало, что в трех группах наблюдались значительные различия в соотношении латентности не-REM к общему времени сна, и латентности REM к общему времени сна, времени сна без REM к общему времени сна, времени сна без REM к общему времени сна, времени сна без REM 3 стадии к общему времени сна, времени сна без REM 4 стадии к общему времени сна, и времени сна REM к общему времени сна （P<0. 05）． Более того, до и после вмешательства различия в соотношении латентности не-REM сна к общему времени сна, времени не-REM сна к общему времени сна, "медленной волны" (стадии 3 и 4 не-REM) к общему времени сна, а также времени REM сна к общему времени сна （P<0,05）. время сна к общему времени сна, и время REM сна к общему времени сна значительно отличались между группами （P<0.05． Более того, группа музыкальной терапии имела большее значение до и после вмешательства.
Conclusion: Tomatis listening therapy in combination with conventional nursing can effectively improve the sleep structure and sleep quality in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage.
Цель: что касается природы когнитивных и перцептивных аспектов, считается, что дислексия является дефектом развития клеток мозга в зрительном и слуховом участках. Так как значительные доказательства подтвердили происхождение дисфункциональной неврологии, одним из новых вмешательств для группы детей с дислексией является использование таких подходов, как звуковая терапия, которая в Иране недостаточно исследована. Поэтому было проведено данное исследование с целью оценки эффективности звуковой терапии по методу Томатиса на исполнительные функции у учащихся с дислексией.
Методы: Данное исследование является экспериментальным. Из учащихся с диагнозом дислексия, поступивших в консультационные и реабилитационные клиники в Тегеране, методом случайной выборки были отобраны 14 студентов. После этого они были разделены на две экспериментальные группы - экспериментальную (звукотерапия по методу Томатис) и контрольную (без вмешательства). На следующем этапе с участниками каждой их двух групп были проведены тест Струпа, тест N-Back, Висконсинский тест сортировки карточек (WCST) и тест Лондонской башни (ToL), и полученные результаты рассматривались как предварительные. Затем была применена независимая переменная, иначе говоря, экспериментальная группа прошла 30 сессий терапии 3 раза в неделю продолжительностью около 2 часов, в ходе которых проводилась "звуковая терапия по методу Томатис", в то время как за контрольной группой просто наблюдали. В конце вмешательства был проведен пост-тест, а затем через 1,5 месяца был проведен последующий анализ групп. Данные оценивались с помощью метода повторных мер ANOVA в статистической программе SPSS-22, при этом p<0,05 считалось статистически значимым.
Результаты: Результаты показали, что звукотерапия повлияла на улучшение исполнительных функций (избирательное внимание, когнитивная гибкость, абстрактное мышление, изменение отношения, когнитивная функция, способность планировать и организовывать) у учащихся с дислексией (p<0,005).
Выводы: Согласно полученным результатам, учитывая полезность звуковой терапии для улучшения успеваемости учащихся с дислексией и принимая во внимание короткую продолжительность этих вмешательств и их привлекательность для детей, представляется, что применение этого метода может быть полезным при нарушениях обучаемости и других расстройствах, вызванных несовершенством исполнительных функций. (бесплатная версия)
Цель: цель данного исследования - изучить эффективность звуковой терапии по методу Томатис на навыки чтения и моторику у студентов с дислексией.
Метод: Для этого сначала из числа студентов с диагнозом дислексия, обратившихся в консультационные и реабилитационные клиники Тегерана, методом удобной выборки были отобраны 14 человек, которых случайным образом поровну разделили на контрольную и экспериментальную группы. На следующем этапе было проведено предварительное тестирование, и экспериментальная группа прошла 30 сессий (3 раза в неделю, около 2 часов) звукотерапии по методу Томатис, в то время как контрольная группа терапию не проходила. По окончании вмешательства был проведен пост-тест, а затем через 1,5 месяца было проведено наблюдение за группами. Оценка данных осуществлялась с помощью MANCOVA.
Результаты: Результаты показали, что звуковая терапия повлияла на улучшение навыков чтения и мелкой моторики у учащихся с дислексией, но не повлияла на крупную моторику.
Заключение: Согласно полученным результатам, учитывая полезность звуковой терапии для улучшения успеваемости учащихся с дислексией и принимая во внимание короткую продолжительность этих вмешательств и их привлекательность для детей, представляется, что этот метод может быть полезным при нарушениях обучаемости и других расстройствах, вызванных несовершенством исполнительных функций, таких как СДВГ и аутизм.
Глобальные исследования, проведенные среди взрослых и детей, показали положительное влияние МТ на людей с особыми потребностями. Целью данного качественного исследования, проведенного на выборке из трех учеников начальной школы, посещающих музыкальную школу, было определить влияние МТ на учеников с дефицитом в области обучения на индивидуальных и групповых занятиях в музыкальной школе. В начальном состоянии наблюдались проблемы с вниманием, концентрацией, функциональной музыкальной грамотностью и техническими навыками игры на инструменте. Триангуляция результатов показала положительные улучшения в области внимания, концентрации, внутреннего спокойствия и положения тела при игре на инструменте. У одного ученика был отмечен значительный прогресс в музыкальной грамотности.
24 adults were selected from a rehabilitation center and a protected workshop of the Lebenshilfe in Austria. They were then assigned randomly to two groups; an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received the Tomatis® Training over a period of 40 weeks, consisting of 4 blocks with 40 minutes a day over the course of 10 days per block (40 minutes x10 days x4 blocks). A questionnaire (Disability Rating Scale) and a Biofeedback Measurement Instrument was employed as a pre- and post-test, before, during and after the Tomatis® Training.
We conclude from the findings of the present study that students’ self-regulation is enhanced with use of the Tomatis® method. This outcome is likely enabled by the fact that listening skills training enhances the ability to self-reflect, to take responsibility, and to act with more boldness. This study’s findings are constrained by the fact that this is an exploratory investigation of a prospective conceptual or hypothetical model. More research is needed to test the explanatory value of the effectiveness of this model in additional student populations; as well as to further explore the applicability of the Tomatis® Method as an effective approach to enhance learner self-regulation.
To sum up, these are some spheres in reading skills that improves after Tomatis® therapy, especially short – term phonological memory if the auditory memory is good and auditory synthesis if the selective attention is better and the amount of proper read words.
Two singers, both professional tenors of the same technical level, vocally performed a predetermined sequence on the same note in two different listening conditions (one singer for each condition): Electronic Ear Condition 1, having vocal emission set to ideal parameters, and Electronic Ear Condition 2, having vocal emission set to neutral parameters. Measures were carried out through the comparative analysis of the obtained sonograms; this analysis highlighted the difference between the amplitudes of the sinusoidal wavelength, and, in the frequency spectrum, highlighted the increase of the high-quality singing emission parameters according to the neurophysiological patterns proposed by Tomatis®. Our pilot study shows a clear improvement in the richness of harmonics and in the density of the vocal timbre for the singer in the Electronic Ear Condition 1, compared to the singer in the Electronic Ear Condition 2.
To investigate the effect of Tomatis audio training on executive dysfunction in patients with stroke. A total of 80 stroke patients from the Rehabilitation Branch, Tangshan Worker's Hospital were enrolled prospectively. They were divided into either a music group or a control group (n=40 in each group) according to random number table. On the basis of conventional rehabilitation training, both groups received music training.
The patients of the control group received conventional music training (conventional frequency music without audio processing); the patients of the music group received Tomatis audio training. Both groups were trained at the same time, once a day for 60 -90min, and they were trained for 2 cycles. The first cycle was 14 days and the second one was 10 days, the interval of the 2 cycles was 30 days (a total of 54 days). The Behavioral Assessment of Dys-executive Syndrome (BADS) was used to assess their executive dysfunction before and after music training.
The 6 sub-projects of BADS in the music group after music training: the rule shift cards test, action program test, key seek test, temporal judgment test, zoo map test, modified six elements, and total standard score (median [P25,P75]) 2.0 (1.2,2.7),2.0 (1.0, 2.0), 2.0 (1.0, 2.0), 2.0 (1.0, 2.0), 2.0 (2.0, 2.0), 2.0 (2.0, 3.0), and 11.0 (11.0, 12.0), respectively).
They were compared with those of the control group (1.0[1.0, 2.0]), 1.0 [1.0, 2.0], 1.0 [1.0, 2.0], 1.0 [1.0, 2.0], 1.0 [1.0, 2.0], 1.0 [1.0, 1.0], and 8.0 [8.0, 10.0], respectively).
There were significant differences between the 2 groups (all P < 0.05).
Tomatis audio training may effectively improve the executive function in patients with stroke.
The study researches regarding changing in reading and auditory perception ability after intervening dyslexia high-risk group of middle and high school students for improvement on auditory processing of neurological factors, and then aims to make a systematic intervention program for dyslexia students in verifying efficacy. The target of study is dyslexia high-risk group of 168 middle and high school students after a preliminary screening test in Childcare Facilities which are vulnerable social group in Gyeonggi province. They are tested deeply by reading and auditory perception ability, and then 24 students are selected. They are tested 20 times by auditory perception simulation and fluent reading train in TOMATIS Method for improving auditory system which transmits language information, and then are taken by post tests. In conclusion intervention efficacy is sure because reading, understanding, and auditory processing ability are in significant change of statistical analysis after preliminary and post tests. It is an important achievement to show necessity of neurological science access in diagnosis and intervention method of dyslexia through the research.
This systematic review sought to determine the evidence on how the Tomatis® Method, a sound stimulation intervention for improving listening, compares to other self-regulation interventions with tertiary students. Findings suggest the Tomatis® Method to be superior to alternative self-regulation approaches in decreasing psychosocial and emotional stressors, as well as enhancing well-being of students. The Tomatis® Method was as effective as alternative approaches in promoting self-awareness and self-monitoring. Alternative methods were more effective than the Tomatis® Method in aspects of critical thinking. The Tomatis® Method appears to compare well with other interventions for the promotion of self-regulation among tertiary students.
The client was an 18 year old male. The oldest of five siblings in a very supportive, caring Family ; The family had a wide range of social connections.
The client’s Mother approached Fit 2 Learn for help when she had run out of other options and one of the local adult Autistic support groups suggested that she tried Fit 2 Learn CIC…He is starting to express his preferences and request things to be done for him. He has learnt to delay gratification. He is starting to take an interest in his clothes and haircut. He is learning slowly all the skills that he missed out on earlier in life from how to deal with diarrhoeato watching a film and understanding the story. It is slow work, but it would not have been possible without Tomatis® therapy.
Communication problems: She struggled to express herself adequately and therefore spoke a minimum. When asked a question, she always took a long time before reacting and answering the question. Problems with information processing and integration: The parents called it problems with "integration of brain function". Anxiety: Mandy were easily stressed when exposed to a new environment or circumstances. She was also prone to performance anxiety, especially during exams. “Low Initiative”: According to the parents, she never took any initiative – everything had to be suggested to her or initiated by someone else. Even starting something basic such as bathing / washing could be problematic.
The results from the questionnaires were very positive. Her anxiety and feelings of depression decreased a lot. Although Mandy’s Psychological Wellbeing were quite satisfactory before the program, it also showed improvement after the program.
Most of the children that attend Secunda Christian Academy (SCA) come from previously disadvantage homes. As a result at home the focus is not always on development. Stimulation in terms of perceptual skills and scholastic abilities are often compromised. The children are often ill-prepared for the demands of school. In general the children in SCA perform well in the lower grades but start to fail from grade 4 onwards because of their unstable developmental foundation. The children struggle to cope with the demands of the higher grades and find it challenging to work independently.
SCA Headmistress; “We as a SCA were very privileged to expose the children to the Tomatis® program. Learners’ that had smaller developmental challenges, concentration definitely showed an improvement. It was also clearly evident that their balance improved a great deal.”
The Children are more focused more relaxed and less anxious then before the Tomatis® intervention.
After a two-week session of Tomatis® training, improvement of the overall condition and each tested aspect of the experimental group, evaluated by the MoCA scores, was statistically significant; as to the control group, the participants also showed improvement with significance in the aspects of memory, executive functions, visuospatial ability, abstract thinking and the overall condition. Moreover, the comparison between groups revealed that improvement occurred in the experimental group in each individual aspect and the overall condition was significantly substantial than that of the control group. Conclusion: Tomatis® audio training can enhance the cognitive functions of patients with stroke.
After two sessions of Tomatis® audio training, the scores of the experimental group obtained by RBMT-Ⅱ increased significantly, as compared with that of the control group, in the aspects of recalling names and appointments, recognizing pictures and faces, spatial awareness, and immediate and delayed recall of stories, routes and mails. Conclusion: Tomatis® audio training can enhance memory of patients with stroke.
Performance of blind/visually impaired children and teenagers before and after the auditory training and the music training in some auditory tasks (pitch discrimination, pitch–timbre categorization, pitch memory, lateralization of a stationary sound of a drum, lateralization of one or two moving motor vehicles) is compared. In the auditory training, the subjects were actively involved, i.e. they had to answer questions related to presented sound material. The music training was based on passive listening to sounds presented according to the Tomatis® Method. The training (auditory or music) effectiveness was measured as a difference between results of a pre- and post-training verification test in which the subjects were asked to perform the auditory tasks mentioned at the beginning. The persons who took part in the study were divided into two age groups: 7–12 year olds and 13– 19 year olds. According to the results, the auditory training was beneficial for blind or visually impaired teenagers, especially in respect of lateralization tasks. For small children the auditory training was not as effective as for adolescents. However, it has been shown that the music training was generally beneficial for them, although none of the verification tasks was privileged.
The present research aimed at demonstrating whether the so-called “Tomatis® effect”, the reeducation of the auditory system, relies on an actual modification of sound encoding along the auditory pathway, from brainstem to cerebral cortex. On the one hand, this was evaluated by comparing the auditory evoked potentials of the electroencephalogram (EEG) - brain activity related to the encoding of sound features - before and after the treatment. On the other hand, the “Tomatis® effect” was compared to the effect of the same music in its natural state. In this pilot phase, a “Tomatis Group” (TG) and a “Control Group” (CG) of six healthy participants each were involved in the study. Participants of the TG received 13 two-hour listening sessions following a TOMATIS® listening program and participants in the CG received 13 two-hour listening sessions of the same musical pieces as used in the TOMATIS® program presented through the same TOMATIS® device, but not processed with the Tomatis® Gating system and with the bone conductor output switched off. In the EEG sessions the complex Auditory Brainstem Response (cABR) or Frequency Following Response (FFR) and the mismatch negativity (MMN) were recorded. The FFR is the biological signature of sound encoding at the level of the inferior colliculus in the ascending auditory pathway along the brainstem, which has been shown to track plastic changes in the auditory brainstem during both short-term and long-term learning. MMN is the cortical auditory evoked potential that reflects the violation of an acoustic regularity encoded in the auditory cortex.
Mozart's sonata for two pianos in D major, K448, has been shown to decrease interictal EEG discharges and recurrence of clinical seizures in both adults and young patients. In this prospective, open-label study, we evaluated the effect of listening to a set of Mozart's compositions, according to the Tomatis method, on sleep quality and behavioral disorders, including auto-/hetero-aggression, irritability, and hyperactivity, in a group of children and adolescents with drug-resistant epilepsy. The study group was composed of 11 outpatients (7 males and 4 females), between 1.5years and 21years of age (mean age: 11.9years), all suffering from drug-resistant epileptic encephalopathy (n=11). All of them had a severe/profound intellectual disability associated with cerebral palsy. During the study period, each patient had to listen to a set of Mozart's compositions 2h per day for fifteen days for a total of 30h, which could be distributed over the day depending on the habits and compliance of each patient. The music was filtered by a device preferably delivering higher sound frequencies (>3000Hz) according to the Tomatis® principles. The antiepileptic drug therapy remained unchanged throughout the study period. During the 15-day music therapy, 2 out of 11 patients had a reduction of 50-75% in seizure recurrence, and 3 out of 12 patients had a reduction of 75-89%. Overall, 5 (45.4%) out of 11 patients had a ≥50% reduction in the total number of seizures, while the percentage decrease of the total seizure number (11/11) compared with baseline was -51.5% during the 15-day music therapy and -20.7% in the two weeks after the end of treatment. All responders also had an improvement in nighttime sleep and daytime behavior.
Cerebral palsy is an illness comprising diverse movement disorders and attitudes disorders, resulting from long-lasting brain damage in the early stage of development. The psychophysical condition of the disabled child can be corrected through streamlining because of compensating possibilities of the brain. However, the care of the patient requires frequent hospitalizations and many neurological consultations, speech therapy, physiotherapy and therapeutic consultations. Well-conducted rehabilitation enhances the chances that the child will show comparatively even-tempered development and communication. The goal of the work is to describe a case of a boy with cerebral palsy, rehabilitated in different ways, additionally subjected to audio-psycho-linguistic stimulation training. The Tomatis® Method is based on listening to certain sounds and music through the device specially created for it, called the “Electronic Ear”. The result of the conducted analysis is that the child showed an essential improvement in selected cognitive functions and the stimulation with applied sounds had a positive effect on activity of the central nervous system after application the Tomatis® Method.
This project was financed by the European Union and lead by the Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland. Over a period of three years, 1330 pupils (with and without learning difficulties) from 62 Polish schools participated in the research.
The results of the study demonstrate important positive effects of the Tomatis® Method. The study shows that the programs could be beneficial in supporting and promoting development of children with and without special needs and that auditory stimulation can become a part of a school curriculum.
“Both groups subject to the Tomatis® Method have shown improvements in learning, socialization, language and musical skills whether they were suffering from learning difficulties or not. Statistically representative, these results are the more interesting as a lot of children were involved in the project.
Pioneering Qualitative research project focused in the observation and analysis of a 8 years old autist kid reactions, with careful attention when submitted to Tomatis® Method, a technique for processing acoustic messages through auditory stimulation by means of especially designed musical themes listening sessions and “Tooballo®” usage. In observations in situ before, during and after the listening of Tomatis® stimulation and Tooballo® usage were applied SCAS (Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale), that measures a wide anxiety spectrum in kids, and Vanderbilt TDHA by means of parental diagnosis evaluation to measure hyperactivity level. A focal group with parents of autistic kids of CAPADD Foundation, regarding the following subject: “Strategic procedures implemented by parents in order to cope with their autistic children’s crisis”. Significant evolutionary maturing level was acquired; anxiety characteristics decreased and important progress was achieved in writing and reading skills.
This report is a study into the optimisation of academic performance by means of a practical and tool: Solisten by Tomatis®, a listening-orientated pedagogical approach based on the Tomatis® Method which, using sensorineural auditory stimulation recovers active listening and improves attention span, concentration and memorization.
At the end of the study, we make a general presentation of the key conclusions from each 4th grade primary school group in both schools, from the students with specific educational needs, and from the analysis of students’ grasp of the foreign language (English).
We notice how the Tomatis® Method’s innovative tools can improve academic performance and reduce failure at school.
In audiology over the last few years much attention is given to the diagnoses of the Central Auditory Processing Disorders. These dysfunctions are also identified in people with language disorders. There exists therefore a need for effective methods to improve auditory perception. The Tomatis® Method is one of such proposals. For this reason, in Poland it is used more and more often as a support for the speech therapy. The study indicates the potential use of the Tomatis® Method in the treatment of people with dyslalia, delayed speech development, stuttering, dyslexia, and dysarthria.
This study investigated the early effects of the Tomatis® Method, hypothesizing improvement in processing speed, phonological awareness, reading efficiency, attention, behavior and brain physiology by the end of Phase 1 of the Tomatis® Method. This study documented the effects of the first phase of the Tomatis® Method on children with ADD ages 7-13. Of the 25 participants, 15 received solely the Tomatis® treatment while 10 served as controls and were stabilized on ADD medication three months prior to and throughout the study. Therefore, this research study compared Tomatis® versus non-Tomatis® intervention, not ADD medication treatment with Tomatis® intervention. The Tomatis® group received 15 consecutive 2 hour sessions; participants received no additional vestibular or visual-motor exercises throughout the research. Results revealed statistically significant improvements for the Tomatis® when compared to the non-Tomatis® group: the experimental group showed significant improvement in processing speed, phonological awareness, phonemic decoding efficiency when reading, behavior, and auditory attention. A statistically significant increase in slow brain activity at central and parietal midline recording sites in the Tomatis® group was observed when comparing pre- and posttreatment theta/beta ratios within each group. Taken in isolation, these are paradoxical findings as they do not concur with the gains documented. The peak alpha frequency values and the z-scored theta/beta ratios of the pre- and post- qEEGs for each participant in the Tomatis® group were further explored. The paradoxical increase in theta/betha ratios obtained from individual raw values were not observed to the same extent when using z-scores. The z-scores suggested that the theta/beta ratio, although higher for the Tomatis® group after training, remains within the average range for all participants. The individual analysis showed that the changes observed still fell within normal values, which may serve to explain the behavioral gains. To conclude, the significant improvements noted in cognition, attention and behavior, strongly suggest that the Tomatis® Method has positive effects in children with ADD. These early changes in brain physiology require further research.
Objective: The effect of the Tomatis® sound therapy method on the reduction of autistic symptoms in children with autism was studied. Method: 34 autistic children (aged 4-8 years) were selected from a rehabilitation centre in Tehran and then assigned randomly to two equal-sized experimental and control groups. The experimental group received sound therapy for 30 sessions of 120 minutes. The GARS was administered as the pre- and post-test, before and after the treatment. Meanwhile, the sound therapy profile was used as a basic tool for the remediation plan. Results: ANCOVA analysis showed that there were significant differences among mean scores of autistic symptoms in the 2 groups. Conclusion: this research showed that the Tomatis® Method can reduce autistic symptoms, increase social interaction, communication, and reduce stereotypical movements, and can be used as an effective treatment for autistic children.
The aim of this pilot research is to see if Tomatis® Method in 60 hours 1/ Improves reading, writing, math, attention, focus, comprehension 2/ Can help a full classroom in auditory processing, improving classroom attention and production.
The amount of noted improvement across all students suggests that the program benefits not only students who may be performing poorly, but those who are already doing well.
The objective of the present paper is to present study results of the students who received Tomatis® therapy, which was implemented within the project titled “Attention! A solution for success”. Assessment of therapy effectiveness was conducted on the basis of analysis of auditory attention and lateralization tests performed before and after the therapy. Obtained results indicate improvement within all measured parameters: external auditory attention, internal auditory attention, sound discrimination and sound localization.
This was a pilot study that used the Tomatis® Method to see the effects it had on L2 reading fluency in a group of Taiwanese learners. Eight volunteers participated in this study undertaking 40-hours of before-and-after-experimental treatments. The results from the analysis showed that the participants had significant improvements in the areas of fluency, tone, stress, and intelligibility.
However, there was not a significant improvement in pronunciation. This study concludes that the Tomatis® Method seemed to help participants improve their reading fluency as well as increase the levels of confidence and motivation when learning the target language.
From the very beginning Tomatis® Nordiska AB has put much effort into developing administrative, technical, and measurement processes in delivering Tomatis® training, and to document their work. It is these efforts that have made an evaluation possible. The client documentation encompasses personal characteristics, needs or problem areas, present and previous health situation, as well as data about the training, such as hours of training, number of weeks between the completion of the training and the final evaluation, and a self-rating questionnaire administered once before the training and a second time four to six months after completed training.(…) One conclusion that can be drawn, is that the training appears to have beneficial effects on concentration and attention difficulties, as well as on social adaptation and behaviour, in both adults and children, even in severe cases.
This document introduces singers and voice teachers to Dr. Alfred A. Tomatis®’s listening training method with a particular emphasis on its relevance to singers. After presenting an overview of Tomatis’s work in the field of audio-psychophonology (circa 1947 through the 1990s) and specific ways that aspects of his theory are relevant to singers’ performance skills, this project investigates the impact of listening training on singers by examining published research. The studies described in this document have investigated the impact of listening training on elements of the singer’s skill set, including but not limited to measures of vocal quality such as intonation, vocal control, intensity, and sonority, as well as language pronunciation and general musicianship. Anecdotal evidence, presented by performers and their observers, is also considered. The evidence generated by research studies and anecdotal reports strongly favors Tomatis®-based listening training as a valid way to improve singers’ performance abilities.
This research aimed to know the effectiveness of using Tomatis® Method to improve the students’ listening skill and to know the student activeness toward teaching learning process through Tomatis® Method at the tenth grade students of SMK Negeri 2 Makssar. The method of this research consisted of two cycles. One cycle consisted of four meetings. It means that there were eight meetings for two cycles. As subject in this research was class X in 2012-2013 academic year with students’ number as about 36 students, 23 of the students are men and 13 students are women. The instruments of this research were observation sheet and listening test or evaluation. The findings of the research were students’ improvement in listening was 64.55 in cycle I and then it became 73.93 in cycle II. The students’ participation in learning listening process in the first meeting of cycle I was 59.02% then it became 81.25% in fourth meeting of cycle II.
A prospective randomized study compared the success rate to a comparative examination in medical sciences of 26 students who were given Hericium erinaceus (HE) and followed a Tomatis® program versus 42 control students. The group Tomatis/HE was first composed with 42 studients. However, 16 persons (including 11 doublings) did not perform any training or take any HE. The success rate was equal to 69.2% in the HE/Tomatis® group versus 51,2% in the control group (P < 0.05). The success rate in the HE/Tomatis® group was equal to 66.7% in students who tried for the first time versus 25% in the control group (P < 0.001). For the sub-group Tomatis®/HE of 16 non-observers, the success rate was similar to the control group (50 versus 51.2%) except for doubling (54.5 versus 88.2%; P < 0.001) suggesting some lack of motivation. HE/Tomatis® increases the success rate in comparative medical examinations for motivated students.
This study explored the impact of the Tomatis® Method of sound stimulation on student interpreters at a merged higher education institution in South Africa. Interpreters were randomly allocated to a pre-post, experimental (n=9) and non-intervention control group (n=9) (age range =19-36; ethnicity = 17 white, 1 coloured). The experimental group received sound stimulation via the Tomatis® Method. Interpreting performance, personality functioning, attention/concentration and mood states were assessed. Non-parametric, statistical analysis indicated significantly enhanced interpreting technique and psychological well-being in the experimental group. Openness to feelings was enhanced in the control group but attention, concentration and memory was reduced. Replication and extension of educational interpreting across multicultural tertiary contexts and the impact of Tomatis® stimulation in improving performance necessitate further study.
Objectives: Audio-psycho-phonological stimulation training is a method based on listening to various musical sounds by means of a special device called the Electronic Ear. The goal of this therapy is to enhance damaged hearing and consequently facilitate greater stimulation of the central nervous system, particularly the cortex. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Tomatis® Method in the treatment of cognitive functions among children with speech impediments. Material and methods: Data were collected from forty-seven children (age ranging from 3 to 15), all of whom had various neuropsychological impairments including speech impediments, which was the main observed deficit. All subjects had undergone a two-stage therapy based on the Tomatis® Method. Further assessment included the evaluation of such functioning parameters as time of reaction, hearing oversensitivity, verbal fluency and localizing. Results: Statistically significant improvement of most evaluated functioning parameters including shorter time of adequate reaction to presented stimuli was observed. Not only did the participants of the study have a lower threshold of hearing sensitivity, but also their ability to localize the sources of sounds significantly improved. Furthermore, subjects’ verbal fluency was enhanced; however, the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Audio-psycho-phonological stimulation training significantly improved subjects’ cognitive functioning. Its efficiency in relation to such parameters as time of reaction, localization of sources of sounds and oversensitivity to audio stimuli was demonstrated. One may conclude that the Tomatis® Method is a useful way to stimulate development and treat speech impediments.
The results show significant improving effects of the Tomatis® Program on spatial perception sense. It is interesting to note that differences in the timely development have been discovered depending on the applied test material. The analysis of the 3DW test shows a long-term effect comparable with the "Extended Tomatis® Effect" that had been shown by Mould (1985), Kershner (1986) and Du Plessis (1988) in relation with reading and writing disorders, speech performance and anxiety disorders. Also the analysis of the EST data shows a positive effect, but the long-term effect cannot be confirmed.
Different listening training methods exist, which are based on the assumption that people can be trained to process incoming sound more effectively. It is often distinguished between the terms hearing (= passive reception of sound) and listening (= active process of tuning in to those sounds we wish to receive). Listening training methods claim to benefit a wide variety of people, e.g. people having learning disabilities, developmental delay or concentration problems. Sound therapists report about improved hearing/ listening curves following listening training programs. No independent research study has confirmed these results using standardized hearing test measures. Dr. Alfred Tomatis, a French ear nose throat doctor, developed the Tomatis listening training in the 1950s. The principles of the Tomatis method are described. A literature review has been conducted to investigate, whether the Tomatis method is based on assumptions, which scientifically hold. The results of the literature study are discussed. A research study is proposed, in which the effects of the Tomatis method on hearing will be investigated using both conventional hearing threshold measurements and objective measures such as otoacoustic emissions.
This article presents a reanalysis of a previously reported study on the impact of the Tomatis® Method of auditory stimulation on subjects with autism. When analyzed as individual case studies, the data showed that six of the 11 subjects with autism demonstrated significant improvement from 90 hours of Tomatis® Therapy. Five subjects did not benefit significantly, at least not on the measures used in this research. The results of this study support previous findings reported in peer reviewed research. The benefits from the Tomatis® Therapy varied from subject to subject. In this study, one subject transitioned from nonverbal to verbal, one began to spontaneously repeat words, and others increased their receptive and expressive vocabulary. Additional findings included improvements in skills of daily living, motor skills, socialization, and overall communication skills. The findings of this study also indicated reductions in hyperactivity, atypical behavior, and inattention.
Response to “Brief Report: The Effects of Tomatis Sound Therapy on Language in Children with Autism”, Dr Jan Gerritson, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, USA ,2008
Brief Report: The Effects of Tomatis Sound Therapy on Language in Children with Autism
Corbett BA, Shickman K, Ferrer E., 2007 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17610057
Qualitative study outcomes confirmed that the experimental participants experienced an improvement as interpreters, as evidenced by experiences associated with relaxation and improved interpreting resources, improved speech production and improved listening skills, even though only attaining quantitative improvement on one of four aspects of interpreting performance. Additionally, they experienced statistically significant personality enrichment in terms of Extraversion, augmented by corresponding qualitative evidence of being more at ease. The beneficial impact of the TM was thus extended beyond its traditional clinical context to that of educational interpreting, though replication remains essential. The importance of this study lies in its contribution to interpreters’ performance and well-being, thereby enhancing the multilingual environment at the NWU.
Based on experimental studies about the human ear-voice-connection and his knowledge about the prenatal listening experience, French physician, scientist and philosopher Alfred A. Tomatis® developed a program of auditory stimulation and training called the Tomatis® Method, which is supposed to treat a wide variety of emotional, psychological and physical problems. This thesis deals with the impact of the Tomatis® Method on spatial ability utilizing a quasi-experimental design with pre, post and follow-up test. As psychometric instruments the Three-Dimensional Cube Comparison Test (3DC, dt.: Dreidimensionaler Würfeltest – 3DW; Gittler, 1990) and the Endless-Loops-Test (dt.: Endlosschleifentest – EST; Gittler & Arendasy, 2003), which are both Rasch-scaled, were exerted. Analysis (n=60) using the Linear Logistic Test Model (Fischer, 1995) revealed reliable associations between the listening training and spatial ability skills. Positive effect sizes were found, favoring those, who had participated in the Tomatis® treatment. Especially the 3DC-data showed that the improvements continued even after the end of the intervention, which can be constituted as „Extended Tomatis® Effect“.
Conclusions: Most of the achievements obtained through Tomatis® Method intervention are maintained in the long term. Reading and writing acquisition processes are enhanced with Tomatis® Method exposure, as well as in decoding components as in comprehensive. It is not possible to conclude whether or not social and family adjustments are enhanced in the long term due to difficulties in those variable evaluations. Ten and fourteen months later new skills emerge especially related to Reading skills. Scholar performance was not a sensible variable to change.
The Tomatis® Listening Program that was implemented at Baker Academy occurred during a seven-month period. The results of the testing confirm a substantial gain in the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills and Socialization. On the average, students gained between 13 months and 34 months within these domains during a seven-month time period. This is statistically significant when you take into account that these students were disadvantaged and receiving intervention services prior to the onset of this program. These improvements are directly related to their improvements in auditory processing. As the muscles of the ear begin to work more efficiently, an individual becomes better able to listen and communicate. As listening and communication improve, learning becomes easier and academics improve. As learning has become easier for these students, their frustration level has notably decreased which has resulted in less behavioral problems in the classroom.
The students have shown improvement in auditory processing abilities. The students are better able to understand speech in the presence of background noise. This in turn assists them in tuning in and attending to language and learning. This is likely a result of intense exercise of the middle ear muscles through the application of Tomatis®. In addition, the majority of students have shown improvement in communication, daily living skills and socialization as indicated by the Vineland-II test results. Some students improved one standard deviation, which in some cases resulted in their abilities changing from moderately low to adequate. These improvements are directly related to their improvements in auditory processing. As the muscles of the ear begin to work more efficiently, an individual becomes better able to listen and communicate. As listening and communication improve, we begin to see a child develop better self-confidence and improved social skills.
A total of 35 studies were published on the impact of the Tomatis® Method of auditory stimulation. The largest number of publications deals with treating learning disabilities, showing that a variety of learning disabilities are effectively treated by the Tomatis® Method. Several small scale research projects on autism have been reported, showing that about 60% of the autistic children benefit from the Tomatis® intervention. Several studies show that the Tomatis® intervention accelerates the learning of foreign languages. One of these shows that the Tomatis® intervention reduces the time to obtain a correct pronunciation by half Two small scale study documents the positive impact of Tomatis® Training on the voice. Other studies show that Tomatis® Training facilitates child birth and reduces the time of labor. Other studies show positive effects on stuttering, retardation and on a range of psychological disorders.
This study investigated the effects of a sensory diet and therapeutic listening intervention program, directed by an occupational therapist and implemented by parents, on children with sensory processing disorders (SPD) and visual–motor delays. A convenience sample was used of 10 participants, ages 5 to 11 years, with SPD and visual–motor delays. In the first phase, each participant completed a 4-week sensory diet program, then an 8- week therapeutic-listening and sensory diet program. The Sensory Profile was completed by the participants’ parents before and after both study phases. The Draw-A-Person test, Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI), and Evaluation Tool of Children’s Handwriting (ETCH) were administered before and after each phase. Over 12 weeks, the participants exhibited significant improvement on the Sensory Profile, increasing a mean of 71 points. Parents reported improvements in their children’s behaviors related to sensory processing. Scores on the VMI visual and ETCH legibility scales also improved more during the therapeutic listening phase. Therapeutic listening combined with a sensory diet appears effective in improving behaviors related to sensory processing in children with SPD and visual–motor impairments.
The objective of this research was to find out if the Tomatis® Method for auditory stimulation was a significant variable to reduce the problem of echolalia in children diagnosed with typical autism (Kanner) and atypical autism (Pervasive Development Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified, PDD-NOS) who attend the Tomatis® Centre in Puerto Rico. In order to obtain the research results, a measuring instrument was created, consisting of 12 questions for the parents of children diagnosed with ASD who followed at least the first three intensive stages (62 hours) of the Tomatis® Method.
Tomatis® stimulation and guidance through the program has led to qualitative indications of improved piano performance in all but one experimental participant. Results cannot be generalized beyond these participants. ii. The positive qualitative results were obtained not only by the listening program, but also by consistent support from the researcher, a highly dedicated, experienced piano teacher who guided the students with great care throughout the program.
Therapeutic interventions that employ listening have been used to treat children and adults with a variety of diagnoses since the middle of the last century. The theoretical foundations for listening therapy have been developed by such great thinkers as Alfred Tomatis, Guy Berard, and Jean Ayres, and there is much anecdotal support documenting the effectiveness of auditory training to address a wide range of impairments. The empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of listening therapy, however, has not been very strong. The majority of studies annotated in this review have looked at the effectiveness of auditory training in the treatment of children with autism. Although many children with a diagnosis of autism also carry a diagnosis of sensory processing disorder, it is not possible to make conclusions about the effectiveness of listening therapy on SPD based solely on the autism work. A small study published in the last year shows that listening therapy may be a promising intervention option for children with SPD.
This report describes the case of a young boy with a medical diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia who progressed from needing a wheelchair to walking with handheld assist after Tomatis® Training was added to a program of occupational and physical therapy. The boy had previously been discharged from an extensive therapy program for not making sufficient progress. The consultant concludes that adding Tomatis® Training to a two-hour program of occupational and physical therapy was responsible for the remarkable progress achieved.
In training the voice, should teachers and students be concerned with training the ear--not in the sense musicians usually understand "ear training" (identifying intervals, chord progressions, and so on), but training the ear to a stronger acuity to high partials?
It could be argued that the role of the ear is given relatively short shrift in contemporary Western culture. Many observe that ours tends to be a society preponderantly oriented towards the visual. This is not to deny that the aural also is important in contemporary culture; but is it an exaggeration to say that the general populace is more finely attuned to the visual than to the aural? Electronic amplification of sound, in spite of the benefits it brings, has rendered a finely tuned perception of overtones more a matter of personal preference than a necessity.
Dyslexia is a specific, language-based disorder, which characterizes by the difficulty id words decoding, which reflects insufficient abilities of phonologic processing. Developmental dyslexia, according to different authors, affects from 4% to 12% of school age population and is characterized by the difficulty in reading in a child with normal hearing and intelligence.
Reading is a complex ability, which requires cooperation of different functions. Several studies have shown that dyslexia may be accompanied by auditory processing disturbances, such as disturbance of phonematic hearing, difficulty in sound analysis and pitch discrimination. There is no consensus whether presented auditory difficulties are related specifically with speech sounds or generally to all kinds of sound stimuli. Some theories suggest that processing disturbances affect also visual modality. The aim of the study was to evaluate time and frequency processing in children with developmental dyslexia.
During a study of the impact of the Tomatis® Method on a multicultural group of student musicians, a Black male participant experienced a unique crisis, associated with perceived entrapment and negative professional expectations in view of being Black. Although threatening to desert the study, he completed it, after verbally expressing his concerns. At 7-year follow up, sustained musical proficiency and escalating musical productivity were confirmed. The case study is preceded by a brief review of the research study, conducted in response to the paucity of studies of the impact of the Tomatis® Method on musicians. Thus, the research context in which the case study unfolded is outlined to elucidate the process in which the student singer participated.
The parents’ opinion was that the Tomatis® listening therapy had positive results in 90% of the researched cases (35 out of 39 children). Looking only at the effects of the method on learning and language problems, the improvement percentage is lower. Starting the Tomatis® listening therapy, 34 children chose for the method to improve their learning, and language skills. In 22 cases their skills were improved. The 9 children with speech problems all showed positive results following the Tomatis® listening therapy. Because some children received other guidance before, during and after the Tomatis® listening therapy, it is not clear what the effect of the Tomatis® Method exactly is. An improvement in learning, language and speech was obvious though. It is important to proceed doing research on children with learning, speech and language problems following the Tomatis® listening therapy without other guidance or intervention.
Tomatis® method belongs both to audiology and psychology. Although the listening test reveals great amount of information on patient’s listening profile and emotional status, one must not forget that the results of the test depend also on the physical state of the hearing organ. The aim of the presentation is to show how various kinds of hearing disturbances may affect results of the listening test. Medical implications for patient’s referral are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to determine if the Tomatis® Method of auditory stimulation can be an effective therapeutic intervention when treating Auditory Processing Disorders(APD) in children. This retrospective study studied the results of auditory stimulation on 41 randomly selected cases. The subjects in this study (18 females, 23 males) were initially seen and evaluated for suspected auditory processing disorder. The subjects ranged in age from 4.3 years to 19.8 years (mean age of 12.06). Following the initial evaluation each subject participated in a 90 hour Tomatis® Method protocol of auditory stimulation. All of the subjects presented with symptoms of auditory processing disorder. The results of administration of standardized test batteries for assessment of auditory processing disorder indicated weaknesses with various auditory processing skills. At the completion of the auditory stimulation protocol each subject was re-evaluated to document and quantify improvement in auditory processing skills. The findings indicated that all subjects demonstrated improvement with skills of immediate auditory memory, auditory sequencing, interpretation and following directions, auditory discrimination and auditory cohesion. Reductions in auditory latency were noted. A t-test comparison of pre & post treatment was used for statistical analysis. The results indicated significant differences in all areas that were assessed and compared. These findings suggest that the Tomatis® Method of auditory stimulation may be effective as an intervention strategy for auditory processing disorder.
Auditory processing disorders are more readily acknowledged nowadays than in the past. Only until recently, the ability to hear and the organ of the ear were the last parameters to be examined with respect to learning difficulties and speech delay. Fortunately however, now the ear has come to be appropriately viewed as a fundamental factor in the list of elements that need to be evaluated when a child presents some speech and auditory difficulties.
This study aimed to determine what the effect of participation in a Tomatis® Programme (TP) would be on the psychological well-being and communication ability of a 14 year old, white adolescent boy with Asperger Disorder (AD). A mixed method design in the form of a single case study was used. Qualitative data were obtained via semi-structured interviews, spontaneous sketches and observation. Quantitative data were gathered by means of projective drawings and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Seven main categories with twenty-one sub-categories emerged eom the qualitative data, and were supported by the quantitative data. Results indicated improvement in Interpersonal Communication and all six domains of psychological well-being as defined by RyfT (1995) with most significant areas being: Environmental Mastery, Personal Growth, Autonomy and Positive Relations. The Tomatis® Method (TM) proved to be a successful form of treatment to enhance psychological well-being and interpersonal communication skills in an AD patient. More effective communication and better family relationships can be achieved and therefore youth with AD can be empowered to adjust their behavior accordingly. The TM prepared the participant for a next phase in therapy where he specifically can focus on more effective social skills with peers. Further research involving more participants and a control group is needed.
Utilizing an ‘Abilities to Be Improved’ and an ‘Abilities Improved Form’ pre and post the basic Tomatis® Program of 60 hours of listening, parents of 100 Autistic Children noted changes in their children. The possible areas of change were the following: 1) Academic Achievement, Thinking, Learning, 2) Attention, 3) Behavior, 4) Creativity, 5) Interpersonal Growth, 6) Intrapersonal Growth to Know and Express Self, 7) Well-Being, 8) Listening and Speech, 9) Reading, Writing, and Spelling, 10) Movement, Sports, and Rhythm, 11) Musical and Vocal Skills, and 12) Relaxation. The results demonstrated that the most significant change occurred in the area of Interpersonal skills and the least affected area was Well-Being.
The ear has long been seen as important to the regulation of balance, posture, and movement of the entire body. The ear helps to regulate eye movements and spatial awareness. (6) In comparison to the classical sensory integration techniques of Ayres, the Tomatis® Method may well prove to be a more efficient and elegant form of sensory integration. In this case study, T.R. demonstrated resolution of Diplopia. Balance and coordination normalized, and he was able to climb onto and repair the roof of his trailer during his treatment program. T.R. experienced remediation of the acquired deficits in visual tracking and coordination, visual and auditory perception, and reversals in processing.
Integrator of Rehabilitation in a Traumatic Brain Injury Additionally, with every problem on the initial problem list, solved, T.R. was able to do some small engine repair on car and boat and home maintenance. He resumed fishing, hunting, and riding in his boat, as well as driving. T.R. was able to read without headaches and to study and pass certification exams in a new occupational field in computer networking. T.R. became gainfully employed in a different field with a comparable salary within three years of the injury, far surpassing the documented average of seven years post-injury (1). Tomatis®’ assumption that the brain needs sound energy to enable the thinking process and the development of intelligences (7) is supported by the improvements that T.R. experienced in all aspects of his treatment program. Although one of many modalities implemented, the Tomatis® Program appears to have affected change in every domain of need for T.R. and, in this way, served as a definitive integrator in his rehabilitation process.
A report about two cases of children with a diagnosis of a pathology most commonly known as Developmental Dyspraxia are presented, showing changes in speech and other abilities following participation in a Tomatis® Method program in Australia. These cases deal specifically with forms of Developmental Dyspraxia called Verbal Dyspraxia. Definitions, main theories, and characteristics of Developmental Dyspraxia inform about what this condition is and how it manifests. Also included is a detailed description of the Tomatis® Method program and the physiological and scientific theory basis for observed changes in abilities. Finally, simple conclusions are offered to highlight benefits provided by the Tomatis® Method program for those who suffer from Developmental Dyspraxia.
Objective: Since Tomatis® Listening Training is said to activate the auditory and attention circuits of the brain, we wanted to see if there was a synergistic benefit from combining it simultaneously with speech therapy. Methods: In the first case, a fourteen-year-old girl with Autism and no speech despite eight previous courses of speech therapy, received 30 hours of Tomatis® Listening Training, followed by ten months of three weekly one-hour sessions of simultaneous speech therapy and Tomatis® Listening Training. In the second case, a nine-year-old boy with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Auditory Processing Disorder, poor school performance, and secondary impaired phonemic awareness, received simultaneous speech therapy and Tomatis® Listening Training. Results: The girl in case one now has functional use of 34 words and 17 sounds and has had many social improvements. The boy in case two went from a phonemic awareness rating level of mid second grade to a rating of beginning fifth grade in a period of four months, which is faster than usual.
In the etiology of articulation disorders, the most frequently mentioned auditory perception disorders include impairments of the receptive (hearing) function and disorders of speech sound discrimination (disorders of phonemic hearing). One should not, however, disregard the disorders of other auditory functions that can affect the process of articulation. It is therefore interesting to examine auditory attention (selection and intensification of sound stimuli processing) in patients with dyslalia and try to determine its impact on the perception of speech sounds: exogenous and one’s own. No less significant is the assessment of the ability to discriminate sound pitches and the evaluation of auditory lateralization in children with articulation disorders. The authors seek to present this problem on the basis of empirical studies covering a group of ninety-four Polish children aged five to fourteen years.
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of audio-psycho-linguistic stimulation on the quality of voice in children with vocal fold nodules. The study subjects included 30 patients aged 6 to 12 years, with vocal nodules and accompanying dysphonia. Laryngoscopy, acoustic analysis of voice and the tests of listening ability and auditory laterality using the Tomatis® Method were performed in all patients. Abnormal results of the two latter tests were used as the criterion for subjecting the children to the audio-psycho-linguistic stimulation procedure. The examinations were repeated after completion of the full therapeutic cycle and after 7-month observation period. After completion of the treatment, vocal nodules were not detected in 25 (83%) out of 30 treated children. A statistically significant improvement in the listening attention was found in 80-88% treated children, while improved auditory laterality was detected in 90% of patients. In 24 (80%) children, frequency and amplitude voice parameters returned to normal. The favorable effects of the treatment continued after 7 months following completion of the treatment. Assessment of listening ability and auditory laterality by the Tomatis® procedure shows that disturbed auditory perception and the influence of emotional factors on voice production may coexist in children with vocal fold nodules. Audio-psycho-linguistic stimulation is an effective procedure which supplements other methods used to treat children with functional voice disorders.
Both programmes proved successful in terms of reductions of negative mood states, enhanced psychological well-being and selfconcept, but Body Mass lndex scores remained unchanged. The outcome of Group 1 did not significantly differ from results obtained in Group 2. Qualitatively, however, it revealed significant data. Given the time constraints and inadequate measurement of weight reduction, it is recommended that future studies involve: (i) adequate weight reduction measurement; (ii) uses larger, more homogenous samples; (iii) interventions over a longer time span to foster lifestyle enhancement; and (iv) utilizing a follow-up measurement after 3-6 months to determine retention of results.
The goal of the pilot study in question, carried out by a collaboration between the Science Network Man and Music („SNMM“), Mozarteum University Salzburg, and Tomatis® International (Germany) GmbH („TID“) was to document the effects of the Tomatis® Method on musicians. Using specially modified music (Mozart, Gregorian Chants) the treatment is intended to increase hearing ability, and, consequently, vocal ability of persons undergoing the treatment. The goal was therefore to show a correlation between improved hearing and vocal capability using different analysis methodologies (measurement of psycho-physiological parameters, subjective impressions, audiometry, voice analysis) on students studying voice, and thus to verify whether – and wherever possible provide proof of how - music affected with the Tomatis® Method actually causes such improvements. Additionally, the study was intended to ascertain optimal measurement methods and evaluate the most practical study conditions.
This article outlines a preliminary study aimed at making an initial assessment of the effectiveness of the Tomatis® Audio-Psycho-Phonological Method for treating children with reading disorders. The subjects of the research were 8 primary and secondary school children with reading disorders who were subject (on average) to 46 hours of treatment, or in other words less than 3 months of treatment (these 3 months included a minimum break of 6 weeks). The differences between the z points were calculated both in relation to the time and errors in reading performance before and after the treatment, and an endeavour was made to see if such improvement differences were greater than they would have been without treatment (Tressoldi, P.E., Stella, G., Faggella, M., 2001). This article provides an in-depth presentation of the results of two clinical cases with reading disorders both in phonological and lexical terms; in one case there were greater deficits in terms of the phonological aspect, and in the other case there were greater deficits in terms of the lexical aspect. In addition, the mean values and standard deviations for the changes in reading performances after the treatment are presented, which are calculated in relation to the 8 children with reading disorders. It emerged from this preliminary study that the mean increases after the treatment in relation to the reading speed in the MT Reading Test (correctness and speed) and the Words Reading Test were greater in terms of development than would have been the case without treatment. In the reading of non-words on the other hand, there was an increase in the reading speed which was close to what would have occurred without treatment, although there was an average improvement in the correctness of 1.32 sd.
The goal of this article is to describe the Audio Language Project, an important experimental study in the context of the Language Program financed by the European Community. A later study will examine the scientific and theoretical bases of the experiment The 2nd chapter (The Project) will present the goals and the setup of the project. The 3rd chapter (Acoustic Perception Training with SPT) will treat the practical and organizational aspects of the training process. The 4Th. chapter (Setup of the Experiment) will present the features of the participants and the organization of Audio Language. The 5Th. chapter (Phonetic Exercises) will present the acoustic material used in the phonetic exercises of the experiment. Chapter 6 (Evaluation) will give the criteria used in the evaluation of the results and the linguistic potential of the participants; it will also describe the setup of the tests and the procedure of evaluation. Chapter 7 (Test Interpretation) will present the test data. Chapter 8 will offer a conclusion. Chapter 10 contains the numeric tables used in the text.
Tomatis® indicated to two very important processes in the auditory perception: hearing and listening. He considered hearing disorders to be the essential factor in the etiology of dyslexia and speech disorders. He elaborated tools for the diagnosis of listening as well as by applying the "electronic ear" he developed the stimulation method of the auditory disorders. In the Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing In Warsaw since 1999 - there is the Tomatis® Method used as the assistance for the diagnosis, treatment and, the therapy of patients with hearing, speech and voice disorders and children with reading and writing difficulties. The authors present the diagnosis, therapy program and the results of Audio-Psycho-Linguistic Stimulation (SAPL) of the selected cases.
After the listing training all test persons declared that they felt much more relaxed than before and had observed improvements of the voice development. The voice analysis showed partially a more regular vibrato as well as a shifting of the formants while changes of the control mechanisms were revealed by the biological data. Because of constitutional differences the effects of the listing training deviated between the participants thereby not allowing a final conclusion up to now, which of the changes are to be considered as results of the daily breaks and which are due to the special effects of music.
Six severely autistic males ranging in age from 4 years to 11 years received the Tomatis® Method to assist in alleviating the severity of behaviours contributing to the diagnosis of autism. Ten minute video samples were taken of each boy, under two conditions of play, every time he completed one section of the treatment programme. As measured by the Children's Autism Rating Scale (CARS) ali of the boys were severely autistic at the beginning of treatment. Three (50%) of the boys demonstrated positive behavioura) changes by the end of the treatment. One boy was no longer considered to be autistic, two boys showed mild symptoms of autism and three boys remained within the severely autistic range. Of particular interest were the changes that occurred in pre-linguistic areas for five of the six boys. These included Adaptation to Change, Llstening Response, Non Verbal Communication, Emotional Response and Activity Level. These behaviours are considered prerequisites for successful verbal communication. The children who demonstrated behavioural change were 6 years of age or younger at the beginning of treatment. The author suggests that the Tomatis® Method may be helpful in making prelinguistic behaviours manageable and thus help prepare the child to learn basic skills necessary for the development of language and learning.
Musicians, seeking stress relief and vocal/instrumental enhancement, often turn to the Tomatis® Method of sensori-neural integration training, based on the interdependence and interaction between hearing and listening, psychological attitude and speech and language. The paucity of impact studies on musicians, despite its acclaimed efficacy, has prompted the current multidisciplinary pilot study, involving a two group, pre-post experimental design. Listening aptitude, psychological well-being and vocal (voice) quality were assessed in availability samples of culturally diverse young, adult musicians (n=28), recruited from two tertiary institutions and assigned to a control group (n=10) and an experimental group, consisting of sub-experimental group one (n=10) and sub-experimental group two (n=8). Reasonable preprogramme group equivalence was established between the two sub-experimental groups and the control group. A Tomatis® programme of 87.5 half hour listening sessions and concomitant counseling was completed by the total experimental group (n=18). Results indicated practically significant enhancement of: (i) listening aptitude on the Listening Test and (ii) psychological well-being, in terms of reduced negative and increased positive mood state (vigor) on the POMS in both sub-experimental groups, together with enhanced behavioral and emotional coping in sub-experimental group 1 on the CTI. (iii) Vocal enhancement, perceived both by singer-participants in both sub-experimental groups and a professional voice teacher, culminated in (iv) distinctly enhanced musical proficiency in 28% of all programme participants. Despite indications of multimodal enhancement, further research, necessitated by current methodological limitations, remains a prerequisite for achievement of definitive results.
In the current study the efficacy of the Tomatis® Method (TM), was investigated with depressed young adults. The TM, a non-mainstream approach applicable to, amongst other psychological problems, depression, is based on sensorineural integration training and psychotherapy. The study was motivated by the paucity of research on Tomatis®'s (1974) assertion that the TM is effective with cases of "nervous depression". Depressed students, meeting DSM IV criteria for non-bipolar depression and manifesting at least moderate levels of depression on the BDI, were assigned to an experimental (n=9) and non-intervention control group (n=9) on availability grounds. Following pre-assessment the experimental group attended a Tomatis® programme of 73 sessions and individual psychotherapy. The results confirmed the efficacy of the programme, in terms of practically significant reductions of depression, neuroticism and negative affect, and enhanced psychological wellbeing. No change occurred in the control group. While the results endorsed Tomatis®'s findings, methodological limitations necessitate further research, controlled for medication, psychotherapy and social support, to clarify remaining obscurities.
This article provides an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of the Tomatis® Method, along with a commentary on other forms of sound/music training and the need for research. A public debate was sparked over the "Mozart Effect." This debate has turned out to be unfortunate because the real story is being missed. The real story starts with Alfred Tomatis, M.D., scientist and innovator. Dr. Tomatis was the first to develop a technique using modified music to stimulate the rich interconnections between the ear and the nervous system to integrate aspects of human development and behavior. The originating theories behind the Tomatis® Method are reviewed to describe the ear's clear connection to the brain and the nervous system. The "neuropsychology of sound training" describes how and what the Tomatis® Method effects. Since Dr. Tomatis® opened this field in the mid 20th century, no fewer than a dozen offshoot and related systems of training have been developed. Though each new system of treatment makes claims of effectiveness, no research exists to substantiate their claims. Rather, each simplified system bases its "right to exist and advertise" on the claimed relationship to Tomatis® and his complex Method. Research is desperately needed in this area. The 50 years of clinical experience and anecdotal evidence amassed by Tomatis® show that sound stimulation can provide a valuable remediation and developmental training tool for people of all ages. Offshoot systems have watered down the Tomatis® Method without research to guide the decisions of simplifying the techniques and equipment.
A comparative analysis was conducted to determine the behaviour of people with left-sided and right-sided damage of the hearing organ. Special attention was paid to the recognised cases of peri- and post-lingual damage. The cases of 110 children aged 6-15 years were analysed. Forty-eight children had right-sided and 62 had left-sided deafness. Achievements at school, emotions and linguistic communication were evaluated. The results of lateralisation and dictation were also assessed.
Many scientists believe that stuttering results from incomplete lateralization of brain functions during the development of speech. Therefore, I assume in this paper that stuttering may be caused by irregular lateralization of auditory functions. In my research, in addition to the dichotic listening test. I have also used A. Tomatis®' audiolaterometer to evaluate auditory lateralisation. The study was performed on 45 stuttering subjects. The use of audiolaterometer revealed left-sided auditory lateralisation in 12 cases, indefinite lateralisation in 20 and right-sided lateralisation in 13 cases.
Gilmor’s meta-analysis is based on a study of 225 children with learning and communication difficulties. This analysis shows that the Tomatis® listening sessions have a significant impact in the following areas: language, cognitive and psychomotor development, social and personal behavior.
In this presentation, I intend to describe a program called "Listening Training". This program, which is based on the Tomatis® Method and which we have further developed at The Listening Centre in Toronto for the past twenty years, has been offered to people of all ages. In the context of this conference, however, I will concentrate on the application of Listening Training to children, especially those with developmental delays or disorders affecting their communication and learning skills. My assumption here is that many such delays or disorders are related to a problem in the listening function of these children, in whom the possibility of hearing impairment has already been ruled out.
We define listening as the ability to attune specifically to what one chooses to hear, while at the same time "de-selecting" other sounds and relegating them, so to speak, to "the background". Furthermore, the whole body participates in active listening, not just the ear.
Before going on to discuss our own clinical experience at The Listening Centre, I will review the results, reported in three research evaluation papers, of other applications of Tomatis-based listening programs. I will then propose six categories of qualitative change that we observe among children who have participated in Listening Training, with an emphasis on children with autistic spectrum disorders. In our view, these categories suggest tentative hypotheses that point the way toward new avenues of research and clinical application in the field.
The author-composer draws on his research in the field of therapeutic music to explore the field of intentional sound and music. In Part 2, he introduces the work of French physician and inventor, Alfred A. Tomatis, whose discoveries lead to development of a method for re-educating the way one listens, enhancing learning and language abilities, communication, creativity and social behavior. It has been used to help children with auditory processing problems (dyslexia, learning disabilities, ADD, autism, etc.) and to enable adults to fight depression, learn foreign languages faster, communicate better, and improve creativity and on-the-job performance.
This study was constructed with a large control group and several points of measure in order to offer information on the value of the Tomatis® Method for pregnant women. Each of knows how important a happy birth, without problems, is to the parents and to the child. Each of us knows also, how easily intrauterine life can be disturbed. A poorly managed delivery can presage a life of obstacles in a body that is often very troubled.
Audio-psycho-phonology (APP) has been hailed by some critics as refreshingly new, dynamic, pioneering and revolutionary, whilst others question the theoretical principles and the therapeutic approach, inter alia, because of the strong accent on clinical observations and the lack of rigorous empirical backing. This article presents a short outline of the Tomatis® APP approach as well as an overview of eight empirical studies conducted in South Africa on topics such as laterality, stuttering, anxiety, and the application of the technique to the severely mentally retarded. The studies indicate positive effects, such as improved self-control, self-concept, interpersonal relations and achievement functioning. However, identified methodological deficiencies limit the degree to which the gains can be attributed to the APP approach alone. Finally, the authors propose the adoption of a research strategy that is more likely to identify, and produce an understanding of the strategies, agents and mechanisms by which different elements of the APP approach produce their results.
In thirteen evaluation studies of Audio-Psycho-Phonology (APP) mainly positive results were reported. However, the intrinsic contribution of APP to these favourable outcomes is questioned, in view of underlying methodological problems. This investigation was planned to eliminate such design deficits and to effect a more rigorous evaluation of the APP approach on a group of anxious primary school pupils. Forty subjects from the primary school population of Potchefstroom were identified as anxious by the teaching staff. From this target group pupils were assigned to three groups: 10 pupils who completed an APP programme; 9 pupils who were subjected to an alternative therapy programme; and a non-intervention control group of 10 pupils. Control measures included determining pre-treatment group equivalence, controlling the integrity of both treatment programmes, and controlling the effect of therapist competence. The results confirmed significant positive changes following both programmes, but no change in the control group. On a number of variables the APP group achieved significantly better results than the alternative therapy group, especially with regard to hearing and listening. A follow-up study confirmed the long-term effect of the intervention.
Three subjects have undergone the Tomatis® audio‐vocal training, which is a method that filters sidetone for auditory feedback. Long‐term average spectra of voiced and whispered speech was taken before and after the training with the following results: (1) Decrease in energy in the 50‐ to 200‐Hz zone; (2) increase in energy in the 800‐ to 1200‐Hz zone; (3) different individual overall energy shifts; (4) larger and wider formantic peaks in the long‐term average spectra; (5) increase in global energy; (6) greater pitch and power variability; and (7) increase in average pitch. A discussion concerning the employment of auditory feedback techniques in voice training follows. Future research should determine which psychophysiological characteristics of individuals determine their reactions to auditory feedback. It is also necessary to establish acoustic standards that could indicate desirable directions for voice training.
Total Physical Response is a strategy for learning second languages developed by James J. Asher. The Tomatis® program, developed in France by Alfred Tomatis, is a method for treating dyslexia and communication problems and is also used for teaching basic elements of foreign languages. Suggestology is a psychotherapeutic system based on yogic techniques of physical and mental relaxation, created in Bulgaria by Georgi Lozanov. Suggestopedia is the application of suggestology to education, and specifically to foreign language instruction. Although seemingly different, the three methods have important elements in common: (1) they are based on the way children learn their native language, that is, by acquiring listening comprehension before speaking, reading, and writing skills. (2) They share the premise that learning a second language should be a "natural" experience with emphasis on communicative competence and realistic utterances. (3) They perceive language globally, with attention to detail emphasized later in the learning process. (4) They emphasize use of the brain's right hemisphere, for implicit learning. (MSE)
Developed in Bulgaria in the 1960's by Dr. Georgi Lozanov, Suggestopedia is a unique system of foreign language teaching, combining yoga relaxation and verbal suggestion with the direct method. In the 1950's in France, Dr. Alfred Tomatis began his research into the ear and the voice and subsequently developed his own unique system for treating dyslexia and teaching foreign languages. Both Lozanov and Tomatis are medical doctors, therapists and researchers who have been influenced by yoga. Both emphasize the teacher's authority, the pact of confidence between teacher and student, and the role of the physical and social environment. Both stress the importance of intonation or tone of voice as well as rhythmic presentation of material. Both the Tomatis and Lozanov Methods favor the use of baroque or classical violin music and emphasize the training of the ear and the development of memory through listening and repetition. Comprising an active and a passive phase or session, both systems promote indirect attention to, and unconscious absorption of lesson materials while the students are in a relaxed state. The aim of both Suggestopedia and the Tomatis® Method is to develop the whole personality of the individual in a pleasant learning environment.
With the aim of investigating the possibility of a relationship between ear laterality and reading performance, ten dyslexic children were studied under different conditions of auditory feedback. It was found that oral reading was more rapid when feedback was directed mainly to the right ear instead of at equal intensity to both ears. The possible effect of amplifying high frequencies and attenuating low frequencies was also studied, but the results were not as clear. Consideration was given to theoretical interpretation similar to that which has been proposed for the well-established right ear advantage in normals.
The general conclusion to be drawn from this investigation is that auditory re-education or audio-vocal training with the aid of the Electronic Ear as defined by Tomatis® May lead to i) an improvement of hearing behaviour, ii ) a corresponding modification of the physical-acoustic and temporalrhythmic characteristics of speech, which , iii) give rise to greater speech fluency